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Old 09-03-2010, 04:28 AM
Carol Moreton Carol Moreton is offline
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Default The OSI model for greater integration of trade
All top commodity trading platforms rely upon the recent developments in software technology to improve upon their existing activities. With the arrival of the internet, things have changed like never before. The network of computers is expanding at a feverish pace. Thus, the net topology and the different types of networks in use are also different.

Consider the OSI (Open Systems Interconnect) model. This model has seven layers that guide the development of international standards for the network of computers ? namely the internet. The layers are as follows, starting with physical layer as the most bottom one:
1. Physical Layer
2. Data Link Layer
3. Network Layer
4. Transport Layer
5. Session Layer
6. Presentation Layer
7. Application Layer

Application Layer: It determines the data to be transmitted, the message or record format for the data, and the transaction codes that identify the data at the receiver end.

Presentation Layer: Responsible for encryption, compression and conversion from one transmission code to another.

Session Layer: Enforces the rules for carrying on the dialogue and tries to re-establish the connection if a failure occurs.

Transport Layer: Generates the address of the end user, ensures that all blocks or packets of data have been received, there are no duplicate blocks and that the blocks have not been lost in transmission.

Network Layer: Responsible for end-to-end routing of packets or blocks of information, collection of billing and accounting information and routing messages.

Data Link Layer: Establishes and controls the physical path of communication to the next node.

Physical Layer: Specifies the electrical connections between the transmission medium and the computer system.
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Old 10-18-2010, 01:56 PM
noinyo841 noinyo841 is offline
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Red face Self-help (joke)
I went into a bookstore the other day and asked the woman behind the counter where the self-help section was. She said, "If I told you, that would defeat the whole purpose." (note: "self-help" has two meanings 1) you take without paying 2) you can choose as you like)No money no way in real life,no gold no way in game!
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Old 01-24-2011, 06:51 AM
kinah3 kinah3 is offline
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Default
It can be used to suppress negative publicity that targets your company or sites in the organic listings and reverse search engine optimization curbs negative publicity.
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